Page : 629


ABMOARA, term of adress ; reciprocal relationship between old and young men under their charge, I., 262.

Abstinence from food and water during Intichiuma ceremony, I., 148.

during ceremony of returning Churinga, I., 141.

Achilpa, restrictions on eating, 692.

Achilpa group wanderings across Arunta country, I., 373.

later wanderings, I., 373, 379.

wanderings of fourth group, I., 388.

wanderings of the third party, I., 384.

Achilpa totem, origin of Inkata, I., 357.

both progenitors of, belonged to the same totem, I., 362.

Achilpa tradition, I., 353-390.

Adress, terms of, at initiation, I., 181, 182, 204 f.n., 219.

Adzes, II., 538.

Afterbirth, II., 488.

Agriculture, absence of, I., 14

Alailinga, clouds with light margin, 680.

Alatunja, head man of the Udnirrigita totem group, I., 103, 148, 264.

descent of position in Rain totem, I., 163.

his actions during the Udnirringita Intichiuma, I., 151.

Alchera, I., 72, 79, 103, 305.

Alchera Beliefs. Appendix C.

early traditions, I., 73, 306.

examples of phrases in which the word is used, I., 304.

significance of the term, I., 303.

times, divisions into periods, I., 307.

used as equivalent of totem and of everything concerned with the ancestraltotemic group, I., 304.

used both as substantive and a qualifying term, I., 304.

used for dream, I., 306.

Alkirakiwuma ceremony, I., 176.

Alknalinta, paintied rock at Emily Gap, I., 149, 152, 329.

Alkarininka, name given to men who look on while victim is speared, I., 452.

Alknarinja Churinga, wooden ones with hole bored in them made by the Inkata Achilpa, I., 365.

Alknarinja women, I., 75. II, 471.

Churinga of, I;, 103, 139, 365.

singing the, I., 340.

tradition of, I., 95.

Alknuriniata, name applied to Arumburinga at death of a man, II., 423.

special name of Arumburinga, II., 430.

Ambaquerka, Quabara, I., 270, 273.

Ambilia-ekura, meaning of, I., 224.

Ambilia-ekura, left at Imanda, now used at Engwura Ceremony, I., 379.

given to Inkata kupitcha, I., 363.

shown to the women, I., 291.

Ambilia-ekura ceremony, I., 224, 289.

making the, I., 287, 362.

the first one held, I., 368.

Ambilyerrikirra, I., 362 f.n.

Amera, spear-thrower, II., 525.

represented in Pertalchera by a Churinga, I., 348.

Amunga-quiniaquinia, a small fly-cating lizard into which the Numbakulla transformed themselves, I., 309.

Ancestors, origin of, I., 306.

some arising in arunta country others enterring it on the south, I., 308.

Animal life, I., 13.

Animals and Knanja stone, I., 84.

Animals and Kuruna, I.? 84, 85.

Animals, Alchera men able to change into, I., 326.

Apera okilchya, blind man's tree, II., 410.


Apmara or Panda, soft-wood pitchi, II., 519.

Appearance, personna, of natives, I., 29.

Apulla ground, at circumcision, I., 180, 214.

Arachitta poles, I., 196, 201.

Aradjina gola, straight hair, I., 42.

Arakurta, name of youth after circumcision, I., 204.

Arakurta Knanikilla, I., 316.

Arilta Ceremony, I., 207-10.

Arilta, introduced by the Achilpa, I., 320, 374.

performance of, I., 206, 210.

split rock, representing this, I., 167.

Aritna Churinga, sacred name, I., 112, 361.

Arrai-inkuma, a loud shouting noise, I., 94, 114.

Arumburinga, I., 104. II., 422.

is everlasting, I., 421.

the double of the Kuruna or spirit of each individual, I., 421.

watching over men and women, II., 422.

when visiting grave is called Alknuriniata, II., 422.

Arungquilta, evil magic or an object endowed with evil magic, I., 347,. II., 403, 405, 414 f.n., 415, 418.

Arunta Tribe, size and distribution of, I., 1.

Atninga or avenging party, II., 444.

atninga unterrima, danxes in connection with avenging party, II., 448.

Atnitta ulpailima, at Udnirringita Intichiuma, I., 140, 143.

Atnongara stones, in Medicine man, II., 399.

in body of medicine man, I., 293

Atnumbanta, brake of boughs at inititation, I., 183.

Atnuta, a limp body, I., 18, 194, 302.

Atua-kirra, offering of food at close of the Engwura, I., 301, 302.

Atua-kurka, name applied to youth after sub-incision, I., 210.

Atua iruntarinia, men who can commune with the spirits, I., 424.

Atua oknurcha, the moon, II., 498.

Au-aritcha iwuma, ceremony of throwing initiate up in southern Arunta, I., 217.

Avenging party, making mound with stick as emblem of the victim, II., 442.

Aworra, emblem of victim burnt by avenging party, II., 449.

emblem of youth at initiation, I., 189.

drawing on ground, the emblem of a woman, II., 416.

holes in the ground, representing a man and woman, II., 466.

Axes, ground stone, II., 548.

Baby, methods of carrying, I., 23.

Bag, strings, I., 515.

Baiame, I., 100.

Ban of silence, I., 214, 300.

Bark, thrown at women, I., 197.

Bat totem, origin of, I., 378.

Bean tree (Erythrina vespertilio), I., 23.

Bird, men imitating call of, I., 165.

painted finch, mate of the Euro., I., 352

representing extinct Alchera men, I., 353.

showing water, I., 352.

Birds associated with totems, I., 351.

Biting, circumcision by means of, II., 366.

Blood and red-ochre, II., 484.

Blood and women, II., 482-486.

Blood at Kangaroo Mbanbiuma ceremony, I., 83.

at circumcision, restrictions on seeing and touching, I., 206.

buried, in Southern Arunta, I., 219.

drinking, to ensure fealty, II., 482.

drowning Honey-ant men in, I., 341.

Erkincha men, drawing, I., 346.

Honey-ant people drinking, I., 341.

method of procuring for use in ceremonies, I., 192, 236, 240, 243, 293.

of women forming clay pan, I., 335.

old men provided with by young men, I., 300, 381.

on ground during Emu Mbanbiuma ceremony, I., 154.

on rock at Undiara, I., 173.

poured on the Kauwa-auwa, I., 293, 360.

rubbed over forehead of man, I., 115.

various customs connected with, II., 481.

women and men's blood, II., 483-485.

young men giving to old men to drink on Todd Creek : the water there is still tinged with red, I., 381.


Blue colour, absence of, amongst native decorations, II., 553.

Body, name for whole is Mberga, I., 23 f.n.

Boils, magic associated with stones representing, II., 417.

Bone-pointing, II., 401.

Boomerang, II., 530.

not returning, I., 25.

with incised pattern, II., 556.

Brown, Professor A. Radcliffe, use of terms section and sub-section, I., 41.

Brake of boughs at initiation, I., 183.

Breasts, promoting growth of, II., 480.

Bulbs, of Irriakura, transformed into Churinga, I., 174.

Bull-roarer, I., 99, 107.

two types of, I., 100.

Camp, Alchera, I., 117, 356, 363.

Camps at Engwura, I., 228.

Ekeirinja to women, II., 504.

list of those Ekeirinja to men, II., 502.

local, I., 8, 27.

organisation of main central one, II., 501.

other than permanent central ones are divided into two parts corresponding to the moieties, I., 27.

two kinds of, temporary and permanent, I., 23 f.n..

Cannibalism, I., 263, 280, 284, 336, 335, 309, 384; II., 494.

Achilpa men, I., 378.

ceremony at the Engwura, I., 280.

dogs eating dogs, I., 337.

Inturrita, pigeon people, I., 384.

Capture of women, II., 466.

Cave occupied by Iruntarinia, II., 292.

Cephalic index, I., 35.

Ceremonial ground at circumcision, plan of, I., 180.

Ceremonial objects, II., 563.

Ceremonies, Engwura, I., 223-303.

Ceremonies, totemic, I., 72, 184.

Eagle hawk, I., 243.

given by Iruntarinia to men, 613.

Iruntarinia, I., 242.

Kukaitcha, I., 255.

Laying on of hands after ceremony, I., 238.

meaning of, I., 187.

of the Ambilia-ekura, I., 288.

of the Frog totem, I., 274.

of the White bat totem, I., 282.

on visiting strange camp, I., 505,

Ceremonies (continued).

Performance of, at the Engwura, I., 231.

preparation for, I., 231, 236.

shown to initiate, I., 187.

totemic, I., 231, 387.

Ungperta-ngarra, - general name applied to, I., 387.

Unjiamba, I., 245.

Chambers Pillar, I., 72, 350.

Change in marriage regulations, introduced by Emu men, I., 322.

Changes, introduction of, I., 11, 12, 262.

Changing Euro into a kangaroo man, I., 170.

into animals, Alchera men able to do so, I., 325.

Chantchwa, name of head man of water totem, I., 163.

Chantunga, birds, mates of Udnirringita people, I., 352.

Chaplet, Chimurillia worn by widow, II., 435.

Character, mental and moral, I., 28, 35, 37, 39.

Charming women with head band, II., 409.

woman charming a man, II., 414.

woman with Namtwinna, II., 408.

women with Lonka-lonka, II., 411.

Charunka, very wise men, I., 476.

Chaurilia, present of food, I., 214.

Chichurkna, spirit flying away in form of, on the death of a man or woman, II., 430.

Chignon, I., 32.

Chilara, used to charm women, II., 511.

Childbirth, customs connected with, II., 487.

Chilurillia, bone chaplet of widow, I., 435.

Chipping, associated with flaking on stone implements, 769.

Choritja country, I., 95.

Chua-ninga, mates or pair of Churinga made by splitting original single one, I., 105, 361.

Churinga, general account of, I., 99-134.

Churinga Alknarinja, I., 103, 105.

Churinga amunga of a fly totem, used to cure fly-bitten eyes, I., 413.

Churinga aritna, secret name, I., 112, 361.

telling a man his, I., 115.

Churinga arura paira, I., 169, 172.


Churinga, at Engwura, I., 231, 267, 291.

bell bird with both circle and square designs, 812.

belief, one fundamental one, I., 102.

Churinga Belief, Appendix C.

Churinga, Arura paira, kangaroo tail, I., 169, 172.

association with Kuruna, I., 358, 360.

boomerang-shaped, I., 249.

carried by Alchera ancestor, I., 75.

carried by messenger, I., 227,

cult of, in the Arunta, I., 100.

descent of a woman's, I., 118.

description of special ones, I., 123.

designs on, I., 102, 124-131; II., 567.

dropped when entering woman, I., 106.

examination of, from Udnirringita Pertalchera, I., 264.

first one made, I., 360.

fluttering in bag, I., 337.

found or made by an Arunga, I., 106, 107.

formed by splitting a block of mulga woo, I., 106, 371.

general account of, I., 99.

given to youth after circumcision, I., 203.

given by Euro man to Kakia man to help him catch Euro, I., 81.

given to messengers, I., 227.

handing over to new owner, I., 121, 123, 247, 266.

hung on Nurtinja while men out hunting, I., 111.

ilpintira, I., 356, 357.

Indulla-irrakura Numbakulla, name applied to original Alchera Churinga, I., 105, 358.

Inkata Achilpa oknirra arising from one, I., 104, 357.

Irriakura bulbs changed into Knubbera, I., 323.

kamba, a stone representing a mass of honey from the Hakea tree, I., 158.

Knanja, I., 104, 118, 160.

Knanja of a woman shown to her son, I., 239.

Knanja of a grass seed woman, I., 348.

Churinga ( continued).

Lending and returning, I., 134, 144.

loss of, I., 112.

made by Numbakulla, I;, 104, 111.

made by Oknirrabatas for ceremonies, I., 108, 123.

made in pairs, by splitting of an original one, one male, one female, I., 105, 106, 359, 366, 371.

made out of Tidja, mulga tree wood, I., 103, 371.

ni-inda of the Inkata Achilpa, I., 360; 361.

not the changed body of a man, I., 358 f.n., 359.

of extinct group taken care of by a contiguous group, I., 120.

of Alknarinja women, I., 103, 105, 365.

of Irriakra at Illowura, I., 323.

of Kakadu tribe, I., 132.

origin of, I., 359, 361.

original ones, made by Numbakulla, all stone, I., 104, 356, 357, 361; 365.

ownership and inheritance of, I., 118.

representing Irriakura bulbs, I., 325.

representing a yam stick, I., 113.

representing mass of honey, I., 109.

representing the liver of an Alchera man, I., 132.

rola, wooden churinga, I., 105.

sacred ground drawing, I., 114, 116, 356.

sanctify of, I., 110.

scraping and man eating powder as strengthening medicine, I., 123.

showing father's and mother's to the son, I., 116.

showing it to its owner, I., 70, 113.

singing during the ceremonu of Churinga Ulpailima, I., 142.

special one used at Yarumpa Mbanbiuma, I., 160.

stick carried by Illapurinja women, I., 462.

stone ones general description of, I., 102.

store house of, I., 12.

stroking bears with, I., 144.

talkara, stone Churinga, I., 105, 365.

Tidjanira, making of, I., 365, 371.

Tidjanira, wooden Churinga, I., 105, 365.

tied in string, no Ambilia-ekura, I., 324.


Churinga (continued).

Thrown out by Numbakulla, I., 362.

transforming one of each pair of stone ones into wooden ones with female Kuruna, I., 365.

Twanyirrika, I., 103, 107, 202, 367.

two in the Ambilia-ekura, I., 287.

Uchaqua representing the chrysalis stage of the Udnirringita grub, I., 150, 326.

Unchima, I., 133, 150, 327.

buried with Ubnirringita Alatunja, I., 133.

Unginia of a rat totem, used for promoting the growth of whiskers, I., 267.

ulpailima, ceremony of rubbing Churinga, I., 142, 143.

used for killing, I., 351.

virtue passing from to its bearer I., 110.

wooden, general description of, I., 102.

women possessing, I., 341.

Cicatrices, presence of, no definite significance, I., 32, 33.

Circumcision ceremony, I., 179? 202, 303, 318.

by means of fire-stick, I., 184, 318, 360.

by means of biting, I., 366.

by means of stone knife introduced by a woman, I., 184 f.n., 318.

first ceremony, in the Achilpa Tradition, I., 366.

Twanyirrika men biting off all the parts, I., 372.

City of Refuge, Pertalchera, earliest rudiment of, I., 110.

Climatic conditions, I., 3, 4, 146.

Clothing, I., 24, 30, 33.

and ornaments, II., 511.

Club, II., 534.

Collins, earliest account of initiation ceremonies, I., 186.

Colour of natives, I., 30.

Colours, natives appreciation of, and names for, II., 552.

Concentric circles on Churinga, I., 124.

Conception and totem, I., 76, 77, 78.

and origin of children, I., 363.

at Ratappa stone, I., 272.

Conch, II., 514.

Control of the Engwura by old man, I., 233.

Cooking, I., 18.

Corrobboree, women's, II., 562.

Corrobborees, Atnimokitta, Ilyonpa, I., 233.

decoration for, II., 558.

handing on of, I., 233.

Councils of old men at Engwura, I., 224, 233.

at initiation, appointing officials, I., 181, 188, 198.

Counting, I., 21.

Country, nature of, I., 2, 4.

Crystals, pressing these into man's hand by medicine men, II., 395.

Customs, variation in, I., 29.

Cutting, self-inflicted, leaving scars, I., 34.

Dance at Tjitjingalla Corrobboree, II., 561.

dance of avenging party, I., 449.

Death and Burial ceremonies, II., 429-442.

and Inchinkinja, two star men, I., 428.

detection of spupposed murderer, I., 400.

never supposed to be due to natural causes, I., 400.

of Inkata Achilpa oknirra, I., 364.

Decoration of rocks at Undiara, I., 173.

Decorations of Chantchwa during Rain ceremony, I., 164.

Decorative Art, II., 551.

Descent, arrangement to make male descent of Aruntas fit in with female in Urabunna, I., 43 f.n.

Indirect men in the Arunta, I., 43.

Desert country, I., 6.

Design drawn on back of Wurtja, I., 199.

rubbed off by women, I., 201.

Designs, geometrical, II., 554.

Alknalinta, on rock at Emily Gap, I., 329.

impossible to state the origin of these, I., 131.

of different totems painted on the Illpogworra, I., 296.

on boy at initiation, I., 177, 199.

on Churinga, I., 102; II., 567.

Dingo, taming of, 19 f.n.

Diorite, for axes, obtained in special places, II., 548.

disease, Erkincha, I., 346.

stone axe, II., 548.


Disposition of natives friendly to one another, I., 27.

Distribution of local Totemic groups, I., 65.

divisions, primary, two of tribe, I., 40.

Dog men, wanderings of three, I., 335.

Dogs, can see Iruntarinia, II., 573.

Dog's feet, men wearing, I., 90.

Domestication of animals, absence of, I., 14.

Dominant group, the Achilpa, a, I., 354.

Down, birds, used in decoration, II., 553.

Dream, word for is Alchera, I., 306.

Drinking, ceremonial, I., 141.

Duboisia Hopwoods, the pituri plant, I., 16.

Dust, used by women for magic, II., 414.

Eagle-hawk ceremony, I., 243.

Eagle-hawk, medicine man assuming from of, I., 400.

Earth, used as emblem of youth during initiation, I., 189.

Eating ceremonial, I., 82, 83.

grub people eating grubs, I., 96.

human flesh, I., 40,; II., 494.

Irriakura Inkata, eating Irriakura, I., 174.

Snake women eating snakes, I., 318.

totem animal and plant, I., 80-87, 274, 341.

Udnirrigita, their own totem, I., 82, 330.

Unjiamba women, their own totem, 497.

Echidna man killed, spines represent spears, I., 316.

Eclipses, II., 499.

Ekeirinja, term for forbidden or tabu, I., 298, 402, 406, ; II., 502.

Emily Gap, centre of Udnirringita totem, I., 357.

Enchichika, design on boy at initiation, I., 136.

Engwura, I., 223-303.

close of ceremonies on Parra ground, I., 298.

five phases of, I., 225.

plan of Achera ground, I., 367.

plan of ground at present day, I., 229.

sending out messengers, I., 226.

the first one, held by the Inkata Achilpa, I., 366.

Embracing after ceremony, I., 241.

Emily Gap, traditions associated with, I., 327.

Emu ceremony, I., 156, 275.

Emu man and two lubras, tradition of, I., 325.

men, wanderings of, I., 339.

Emu mbanbiuma, I., 154.

cooking of, I., 19.

emaciated, stone representing, used for magic, II., 417.

foot, man with, felling a tree, I., 325.

Emu, stupefying with pituri, I., 16.

Engwura ceremony, I., 71, 223-303

different forms of, I., 224.

phases of, I., 225.

Ereninna, a snake man, killed by an Echidna man, I., 317.

Erkincha, a disease, tradition of, I., 346.

Ernia, grease obtained by pressing on glands of nostril, I., 457.

Ertnatulunga, name for Pertalchera, I., 11, 103.

store-house of Churinga, I., 103.

Eruncha ceremony, I., 267, 269, 280.

Churinga of, I., 264.

eating people, I., 309.

making medicine men, II., 394.

women, I., 344.

Eruncha woman of bull dog ant, Chanka totem, I., 376.

Eruncha urupurra, hostile to natives, prevents the man from rising out of his grave, II., 429.

Erunchatua killed wwith Churinga by an Oknirrabata, I., 351.

Erunchilcha, design representing hand of the Eruncha, II., 396.

Evening star, myth of, I., 285; II., 499.

Exogamous inter-marrying groups, I., 44.

Extinct totem group resuscitated, I., 247.

taking charge of Churinga, I., 247.

Extinction of totem group, I., 247.

Family, initial stage in formation of, I., 49.

members of, at wurley, I., 18, 19.

Father-in-law, I., 49; II., 490.

Feeling and seeing, I., 142.


Female descent, in Urabunna, I., 43.

Fighting, members of the same local group support one another, II., 411.

Fighting boomerangs, II., 530.

Fights, taking sides, I., 27, 28.

Finger, charmed for evil magic, II., 419.

Fire, Inapatua creatures arinsing from ashes, I., 349.

at initiation, I., 182.

handing to initiate, I., 183.

in body of a Euro, I., 85.

made by avenging party, II., 449.

made by mother of initiate, I., 182.

made by women during the Engwura, I., 278, 295.

making, 744.

men throwing fire-sticks over women during the Engwura, I., 289.

ordeals at Engwura, 331, 439, 539.

origin of, carried by a Euro, I., 348.

song at initiation ceremony, I., 182, 195.

stick, used at sicumcision, I., 184, 318, 536.

totem, I., 348, 349.

women placing Atua-kurka on, I., 213.

women throwing lighted bushes onver the Illpongworra, I., 279, 281, 286.

Fires, at native camp, I., 15.

Fish man catching fish, 554.

Klake, striking one off a block of stone, II., 542.

Klaked stones, II., 536.

Flints, roughly chipped, II.,

Fly Churinga used to cure fly-bitten eyes, II., 413.

Food, given by certain women to medicine man during his induction, II., 397.

nature of, I., 17.

offering to men after tooth-knocking-out, II., 479.

presentation of, at close of the Engwura, I., 302.

presentation of, at close of the initiation, I., 211, 214.

restrictions, I., 205, 210; II., 494.

removal of restrictions, I., 205, 210; II., 488-494.

restrictions on eating, II., 488-494.

restrictions on Atua-kurka, I., 210.

securing animals, I., 15.

vegetable, I., 17.

Foreskin, handed to eldest Kullia of youth, in Northern Arunta, I., 206.

buried in Southern Arunta, I., 219.

eaten by younger brother, I., 206.

handed to sister of youth in Western Arunta, I., 206.

Frog sticks at the Engwura, I., 292.

Frog totem ceremony, I., 275.

Gaps and Gorges, I., 4.

Geographical groups, I., 62.

Gesture language, II., 433.

Gesture language, Appendix F.

Gibbers, I., 2.

Glass, used for spear heads, II., 537.

Gnoilya, wild dog group, tradition of, I., 81, 92, 95.

Gola, hair, I., 42; II., 406.

Gorges, I., 4.

Government of tribe, I., 12.

Grave, ceremonies at, II., 438.

Grinding a stone axe, II., 549.

Ground axes, II., 548.

Ground drawing during Emu Mbanbiuma ceremony, I., 154.

Grounds, consisting of individuals called after animals or plants, I., 8.

Groups, local, I., 8.

Halting a stone axe, II., 549.

Hair, customs concerned with, I., 30, 32, 486.

cut by women from Atua-kurka, I., 212.

girdles and necklets, II., 406.

neither this nor nail clipping, used for evil magic, II., 420.

of dead man, II., 405.

one moiety regarded as straight, the other as wavy, I., 42.

structure of, by Dr. O. W. Tiegs, I., 42.

two forms, no anatomical justification for this belief, I., 42.

Hands, small size of, I., 35.

Hawk, brown, and young women, II., 494.

Head-biting, I., 206.

Headman of totemic group, various names for, I., 148 f.n.

Head rings, I., 24.

Headship of local groups hereditary, I., 10.

Heavitree Gap, native name and making of by Intwailiuka, I., 89.


Hereditary, headship of local groups, I., 10.

History of ancestors handed down with totemic ceremonies, I., 72.

Honey-ant people changed into birds, I., 353.

totem group, wanderings of, I., 340.

Honey-ants, digging for, I., 23.

Horn Expedition to Central Australia, I., 101.

House of Refuge, the Pertalchera representing, I., 110.

Howitt, Dr. A. W. , the first to show the significance of the bull-roarer in Australia, I., 99.

Human beings, origin of, a crude theory of evolution, I., 308, 310.

Idracowra, Chamber's Pillar, I., 8.

Ilchinkinja, member summoning natives to ceremony, I., 226, 227.

Ildada, name for native festival, I., 101.

Ilia-inka, emu feet, man with, I., 325.

Ilkinia, totem designs, general name, I., 177.

incised on forehead, I., 115.

of the Witchetty grub totem? I., 89, 149.

of Udnirringita totem, I., 328.

Illapurinja, a woman arising directly from a Kuruna and Churinga, I., 362.

carrying Nurtunja, I., 364.

custom, II., 461, 462.

Illaura-illima, ceremonial drinking, I., 141.

Illpongworra, lying on the fire during the Engwura, I., 294.

status term of men during the Engwura, I., 262.

throwing fire-sticks over the women, I., 289.

totemic designs painted on the backs of, I., 296.

Ilpintira, Churinga, rock and ground drawings, I., 114, 149.

made by Numbakulla, I., 356.

of Emu totem, I., 154.

of Irriakura totem, I., 114.

of the Erlia totem, I., 154.

rubbing it with forehead, I., 115.

Ilpira, drink made of ant-honey, I., 341.

Ilpirra, a wooden conch, used for magic, II., 412, 514.

Ilquatera, mates, I., 272, 481, 535.

Ilthura, crevices and holes in the rocks, holding sacred objects, I., 149, 150, 327, 328.

sacred spots, visiting these, I., 144.

Imampa, a pad of Emu feathers worn on the head, II., 512.

Imanda, a great Frog totem centre, I., 274.

Implements, designs on, II., 555.

Inapatua, creatures arising from ashes of fire, I., 348.

incomplete human beings, tradition of, I., 308, 313, 314? 315, 318.

Inarlinga, the “Porcupine” (Echidna), I., 314, 317.

Inchinkinja, two brothers, star men, anxious to ensure death when a natice is ill, II., 429.

Index, Cephalic, I., 35.

Indirect male descent, I., 43.

Induction of younger men into ceremonies, I., 188.

Indulla-irrakura, name applied to all original or Alchera Churinga, I., 105, 113.

Infanticide, I., 39, 40, 221.

Ingwaina kurka, little toe bone used for drawing designs by Numbakulla, I., 370 f.n.

Inheritance of Churinga, I., 117, 119.

Ininja, a Kurdaitcha Ceremony, II., 460.

Ininja, an avenging party, II., 460.

Initiation Ceremonies (see also Circumcision, Sub-incision), I., 175-303.

Arilta ceremony, I., 207-210.

appointment of afficials, I., 181.

Churinga used in, I., 193, 204.

circimcision and su-incision amongst Finke River natives, I., 170-210.

circumcision in Norther Arunta, I., 214.

first ceremony, Alkirakiwuma, I., 176.

four successive ceremonies, I., 175.

in Southern Arunta, I., 216.

Lartna ceremony, circumcision, I., 179.

of women, I., 222.

restrictions after ceremony of circumcision, I., 205.

stone put under armpit of initiate, I., 216.

Injilla, pointing bone, II., 401.

Inkata Achilpa, deposits Churinga of all totems in different places, I., 361.

Inkata Achilpa kupitcha, arising directly from a Kuruna and Churinga, I., 357.


Inkata Achilpa marknirra and Irriakura totem, I., 323, 358.

arising at Lamburkna, I., 357.

giving instructions to the Inkata oknirra, I., 362.

Inkata, general name for head man of a local totemic group, I., 9, 11, 162.

Inkata, has charge of Pertalchera and Churinga, I., 103.

Inkata kupitcha Irriakura, I., 323.

Inkata, obliged to eat some of his totem, I., 32.

Inkata oknirra Irriakura, I., 323

Inkata, recognition of new one, when grown up, I., 266.

presides over the Mbanbiuma ceremonies, I., 147, 155.

Inkatas, at Engwura, I., 233.

Inkatas, grades of, I., 362, f.n.

Inkulta, burning those of visitors to strange camp, II., 507, 512.

Inniakawa, ancestors of the Emu totem group, I., 250.

Inpirta, widow, duties of, II., 433.

Interlinia, shoes worn by Kurdaitcha, II., 456.

Intichiuma ceremonies, various names applied to, I., 145.

of the Udnirringita totem, I., 148.

time of holding, I., 146.

Inturkirra, grass used by women for magic, I., 413.

Intwailiuka, Alchera leader of the Udnirringita, I., 328.

tradition of, I., 89.

Inwurra, messengers, sending out of, I., 135,; II., 443.

Irara-rura, squares, II., 554.

Irna, pointing-stick, II., 401.

Irriakura ceremony, I., 259.

bulbs changed into Churinga called Knubbera, I., 325.

Inkata oknirra, I., 323.

Mbanbiuma ceremonies, I., 83, 145-174.

native name of the edible bulb of Cyperus rotundus, I., 323.

tradition of origin of totem group, I., 323.

Irrulknakinna, necklet made from girdle and head bands of dead man, II., 407.

Iruntarinia, general account of, II., 423-428.

giving ceremonies, I., 242, 246.

giving Churinga to men, II., 426.

making medicine men, II., 391.

Iruntarinia, special ceremony of the Unjiamba totem, II., 426.

Iturka-worra man, II., 444.

Iwaiyu, a spirit, Kakadu tribe, II., 421.

Iwupa, a spirit, I., 105,; II., 423.

Kainda-kainda, circles, 786.

Kakadu, belief in spirits, II., 421.

Kangaroo, ceremony, at initiation, I., 184, 188.

stone representing tail at undiara, 269.

totem, Mbanbiuma ceremony of, I., 83.

Kartwia quatcha, Rain country, I., 163,; II., 679.

Kauaua, men carrying, I., 382, 388.

Kauwa-auwa, making, decoration and erection of, I., 293, 357.

taken down and left to rot on a hill, I., 298.

Keloid tissue, I., 32.

Knanikilla, local totem centre, I., 75. 76, 104.

Knanikillas, formation of, I., 75, 76, 253, 264.

Knanja and Alchera, are both often used to signify totem, I., 304.

and Churinga, I., 103.

Knanja, Churinga of Yarumpa man,I., 256.

Rola or Perta, tree or rock marking the spot where each Alchera ancestor died, I., 76, 84, 281, 341, 377, ; II., 421.

Knanja, see also totem, I., 69, 84.

Knanja stone of Unjiamba women, I., 338.

stone of Kangaroo, I., 84, 263.

stone of Yarumpa man, I., 160, 161.

term for totem, I., 69, 230.

trees and rocks of Udnirringita totem, I., 328.

Knives stone, II., 540.

Knout, used for magic, II., 407.

Knubbera, Irraikura Churinga, I., 174.

Irriakura bulbs changed into stone Churinga, I., 174.

Kobong, a West Australian word for totem, I., 67.

Kukaitcha, ceremonies concerned with, I., 241, 259, 381.

Kurdaitcha, ordeal of dislocating toe joint, II., 455.

Kurdaitcha man, decoration of, II., 456.

ceremony of, I., 246,; II., 460.


general account of, II., 454-461.

Kurka, Inkata, a lesser Inkata in charge of an Achilpa party, 549.

Kurnai tribe, bull-roarers of, I., 99.

Kuruna associated with Churinga, I., 75, 104, 105, 140 f.n.

Carried by Inkata Irriakura, I., 323.

changing female into male, I., 365.

enterring Illapurinja and Lunarinia, I., 364, 368.

enterring Irriakura women, I., 324.

enterring women, I., 77, 363, 364.

giving rise to Ratappa after entering women, I., 77, 363.

giving rise to the first Achilpa man, I., 104, 357.

Inkata Achilpa arising directly from one, I., 357.

left in pairs in Mulga trees, I., 105.

left in Tidja or Mulga trees, I., 371.

made by Numbakulla, I., 104, 357, 358, 362.

made by Numbakulla before Churinga, I., 111.

male associated with stone, female with wooden Churinga, I., 359, 365.

nature of, I., 363.

not associated with Churinga Twanyirrika or Namatwinna, I., 107.

of animals, I., 84.

original one splitting to form Arumburinga and new Kuruna, I., 421.

returning to Pertalchera after the death of each individual, I., 104.; II., 406, 407.

the spirit part of every individual, I., 102, 104,; II., 604.

Kuru-urka, girdle made from hair of dead man, II., 405.

making of, II., 405, 431.

used by Avenging party, II., 448.

Lalkira, nose bone, II., 513.

Land, ownership of, I., 7, 8.

Language, changing from Arunta to Ilpirra, I., 376.

Larapeinda or Larapinta, native name of Finke River, I., 9, 179.

Lartna, circumcision, I., 179.

by means of fire-stick, L., 184.

song, I., 184.

Laying on of hands after ceremony, I., 238, 245.

Leilira, stone knives of the Ullagubbera men used at circumcision, I., 184, 315.

of the Echidna man, I., 316.

Lending Churinga, I., 137-144.

Life in camp, I., 15.

Lizard, used by Kurdaitcha, II., 657.

Lizard men, wanderings of, I., 342.

Local feeling and relationship, II., 411.

Local groups, I., 8.

Local organisation, I., 8, 49, 63.

Locality, influencing marriage, I., 49.

Lonka-lonka, a shell ornament, II., 411, 512.

Love-charms, II., 408-412.

Luda-luda gola, wavy hair, I., 58.

Lukwurra, women's camp, position of in main camp, II., 502.

Lungarinia, the two Tmalpunga men, Rola tree of, I., 377.

Lungarinia, second woman in the Achilpa Tradition, I., 364.

Macumba River, I., 1.

Maegwa, adult Udnirringita, wurley representing chrysalis case of, I., 151.

represented by a large stone in the Ilthura at Emily Gap, I., 149.

Magic, associated with Kurdaitcha, II., 457.

associated with Ratappa stone, I., 271,; II., 419.

Churinga used for, II., 412.

evil fear of, I., 55.

evil by means of Mauia stone, II., 413.

man drying as result of, II., 403.

of distant group, II., 408.

of women, II., 413.

punishing women, II., 416.

stone representing thin Lizard, II., 412.

various forms of, II., 401-420.

Male and female Kurunas and Churinga, I., 361.

Male descent, in the Arunta, I., 43.

Male inheritance of Headship of local group, I., 12.

Map of country, I., 5.

Marital customs, II., 472.

Marital relations, I., 369.

Markilanua, or married man, I., 316.

Marriage, in the Alchera men and women of the same totem normally married, I., 71, 311, 318, 369.



in relation to totemic system, I., 311, 369.

Marriage organisation introduced, I., 321, 322, 369.

present system of, due to Emu totem men, I., 321, 322.

regulations of the present day, I., 43, 49.

Marrow of bones, eating by medicine man, II., 578.

Maternal descent in Urabunna, I., 43, 68.

Mates, birds, of different totems, I., 162, 353.

no restrictions on eating, I., 353.

Illapurinja and Inkata Achilpa, II., 562.

Mates giving origin to toetem groups, I., 369.

Mates, men and women, arranged by Numbakulla, I., 369.

Mates or pairs, Unpora ninga, I., 362.

Mates, Thippa-thippa and the Echunpa, I., 250.

Mauia, poison stone, II., 413.

Mbanbiuma ceremonies, I., 81, 83, 85, 144-174, 271, 363, 369.

concerned with reproduction of human beings, I., 146, 363, 369.

difficulty of understanding the holding of this in the case of certain totems, I., 147.

essential features common to all, I., 147.

essential features of the ceremony, I., 147, 367.

made by the Inkata Achilpa kupitcha, I., 363.

of different witchetty grubs, I., 153.

of the Ambaquerka totem, I., 271.

of the Emu totem, I., 154.

of the Ilpira or Manna totem, I., 158.

of the Irrakura totem, I., 173.

of the Kangaroo totem, I., 166, 171.

of the Udnirringita, I., 148.

of the Unjiamba totem, I., 157.

of the Yarumpa or Honey-ant totem, I., 159.

of the Water or rain totem, I., 162.

of the Witchetty Grubs totem, I., 148

primary ceremony of, I., 146.

the first help by the Inkata Achilpa, I., 369.

various names applied, I., 146.

Meat, name for different forms of, I., 22.

Medicine man, design of the Eruncha drawn on, II., 396.

Medicine man and Arungquilta, II., 405.

Medicine man (continued)--

functions and practice of, II., 397, 399.

hole in tongue, II., 392.

made by Eruncha, II., 394.

made by Iruntarinia, II., 391.

made by other medicine men, II., 394.

must not eat warm meat nor go near bull-dog ant, II., 394.

special form of lizard in the body of a , II., 398.

three schools of, II., 391.

women, II., 394.

Medicine men, I., 391-420.

Meimba, carried by the Udnirringita Alatunja, I., 149, 153.

Messenger, carrying Churinga, I., 136, 226.

Messengers, water totem group, I., 163.

Moieties, tribe divided into, but no names for, I., 41.

Moieties and totems, I., 73.

Moiety consisting of Panunga-Bultara, called “Big-men”; o Purula-Kumara, “Little men,” I., 42.

Moon myth, II., 498.

Mothers' camp, Atua-kurka throwing boomerang towards, I., 213.

throwing tooth towards, II., 478.

Mother's Churinga, I., 110.

Mothers' totem, a man's relation to, I., 117.

Mourning, final ceremony, at grave, II., 436-442.

Mulga, used for making wooden Churinga, I., 106.

Mulyanuka, nale applied by man to include all members of other moiety, I., 41.

Munyeru vegetable food, I.? 17.

Mura woman, man calling out to during the Engwura, I., 295.

Muraian objects, slightly realistic in some cases, lead on to conventional forms, I. 132.

Mushrooms, II., 500.

Musical Instruments, II., 513.

Nakrakia, name applied by man to include all members of his own moiety, I., 41.

Nakrakia men taking charge of the Churinga of an extinct totem group, I., 247.


Nalungwa ceremonies, I., 359.

Nalyilta, bough wurley at Rain ceremony, I., 164.

Namatwinna, small bull-roarer, I., 107.

used for magic, II., 408.

Name of dead, restrictions on mentioning, II., 432.

Name, secret, Churinga aritna, I., 112.

Names, totemic, given by Numbakulla, I., 361.

totemic, origin of, I., 76, 79.

Narcotic, Pituri used as, I., 20.

Nardoo, I., 18.

Nasal septum, boring, I., 178.

Navel cord, II., 488.

Nomadic nature of aboriginals, I., 14.

Nose boring, I., 178.

Numbakulla and his travels, I., 324, 356.

climbs the Kauwa-auwa, draws it up after him and disappears, I., 560.

giving instructions to the Inkata Achilpa, I., 359.

giving rise to all Knanjas, I., 356.

institutes ceremonies of initiation and Mbanbiuma, I., 359.

made Kuruna first, then a Churinga for each, later on the Kuruna amanated from the Churinga, I., 358, 359.

making Churinga, I., 104, 105, 356, 358.

name of superior Beings, I., 307, 355.

sending the Inkata Achilpa out, I., 358.

traditions of, I., 307.

Numbers in counting, I.? 21.

Nung-gara, name of medicine man on the Upper Finke River, II., 395.

Nurtunja, a ceremonial object, I., 74, 208, 276, 286, 301.

carried by an Emu, II., 417.

carried by a Kangaroo, I., 170.

embraced by Arakurka at sub-incision ceremony, I., 209.

making of, I., 236

represented by tree, I., 319.

significance of parts of, II., 568.

various forms of, II., 566.

Ochre, constant use of, II., 553.

Ochre and women's blood, II., 484.

Ochre red, old man rubbing young man's body with, I., 303.

Ochre , red, deposits of, formed by women, II., 484.

representing bllod, II., 485.

Officlas, appointment of, at initiation, I., 181, 198.

at sub-incision ceremony, I., 209.

presentation of, after circumcision, I., 203.

Oknirrabata, wise old men, I., 104, 122, 248.

Oknirrabata, making Tidjanira Churinga out of mulga wood, I., 106.

Okoara, ceremony at circumcison, I., 189.

Old men, influence of, I., 12.

Opossum man and moon, II., 498.

Opossum teeth used for making designs on Churinga, I., 102, 371.

Organisation, local, I., 61-66.

local of totemic groups, I., 65-105.

social, I., 41-61.

Ornamentation of boomerang, II., 531.

Ornaments, II., 512.

Ownership of country recognised, I., 8.

Owning ceremonies, I., 230.

Painting boy at the ceremony of Alkira-kiwuma, I., 177.

Pairs, Unpora ninga, Churinga made in, I., 105, 359.

Parra mound, I., 280, 297, 355.

breaking through at close of the Engwura, I., 297.

Illpongworra lying with heads on, I., 280.

making of, I., 234.

phrases used in connection with, I., 280.

singing the mound, I., 242, 261.

the track of the Inkata Achilpa marknirra in the Alchera, I., 358.

Parts of body, Appendix A.

Peininya, term applied to operator at Circumcision, I., 188.

Personal appearance, I., 29.

Perta irrkurra, stone put under armpit of initiate, I., 216.

Pertalchera, I;, 103, 107, 108, 109, 324, 357.

contents of Illyaba one belonging to Honey-ant totem, I., 108.

killing native who reveal it, I., 101 f.n.

of extinct group taken care of, I., 120.

of Numbakulla at Lamburkna, I., 357.

placing the hand on the opening to, I., 144.


Pertalchera (continued)---

rock cave or crevice in which the Churinga are hidden, I., 108, 109.

sanctify of, the rudiment of a House of Refuge, I., 109, 110.

showing a man his, I., 113.

showing this to a man, I., 112.

various forms of Churinga in, I., 107.

Physical characters, I.? 29, 35.

Physiographical features, I., 35.

Phytomorphs, II., 555.

Picks, II., 546.

Pipe clay, widow painted with, II., 433.

Pitchi, a wooden trough, I., 23.

making, II., 518.

Pituri plant, used as narcotic, I., 16.

preparation of, I., 20.

Pleiades, II., 500.

Plover, men imitating call of, I., 165.

Poison” bones and sticks, II., 401.

Poles, Arachitta, during initiation, I., 199, 202.

Porcupine man and origin of quills, I., 316.

Pottery, absence of, I., 18.

Pregnancy, food restrictions during, II., 492.

Presentation of Atuakurka to women after sub-incision, I., 212.

Presentation of men to women, ceremonial, I., 142.

Presentation of officials after circumcision, I., 203.

Primitive methode of operation retained in circumcision ceremony, I., 319.

Princess Alexandra parakeet, I., 356.

Projecting crystals into patient by medicine man, II., 399.

Quabara, sacred ceremonies, I., 72, 287, 343.

Quabara undattha, decoration for, II., 563.

Railtchawa, name of medicine man, I., 242.

Rain ceremony, I., 163.

dance, II., 561.

Rain Mbanbiuma ceremony, I., 162.

Ratappa ceremony and tradition, I., 271.

Kuruna giving rise to a, I., 78, 363.

meaning of term, I., 363.

Ratappa (continued)--

stone, I., 271, 272, 273.

young woman passed by one, I., 272.

Red ochre and blood, II., 484.

Reincarnation, I., 77, 79, 104, 332.

Relationship, local, I., 13.

Relationship, tables of, I., 45-55.

Relationship terms, I., 45-61.

Removal of restrictions, I., 205.

Resin, used for hafting, II., 549.

Restrictions, after circumcision, I., 205.

after sub-incision, I., 210.

Resuscitation of Totem Group, I., 194, 367.

Returning Churinga, I., 138.

Rivers, I., 2.

Rock drawings, II., 814.

Rola Knanja, Knanja tree, I., 106.

Roots of Irriakura, growing out to form Knanikillas, I., 324.

Rubbing the Churinga, ceremony of Ulpailima,I., 143.

Sacred ceremonies, decorations during, II., 562.

Scars on body, I., 32.

Scenery, I., 6.

Schulze, Rev. L., the first to use term Tjuringa, I., 101.

Seasons, nature of, in Central Australia, I., 146.

Section, name for, Ungna, I., 230.

Section names, four, introduced by Ullagubbera men, I., 314.

Section names, eight, introduced by Erlia leaders, I., 321.

Sections, four original ones in the tribe, I., 43.

Seeing and feeling, I., 143.

Sexes, names for, I., 22.

Shields, description of, II., 527.

testing, on return of avenging party, II., 451.

women dancing with, I., 180.

Shoes, worn by Kurdaitcha, II., 456.

Silence, ban of, I., 214.

Simpson's Gap and Lizar totem men, I., 93.

Singing a sacred Yarumpa stone, I., 161.

Singing, Euro man singing Churinga, I., 81.

Singing the ground, I;, 261.

Smell, projecting into food, II., 490.

Snake man killed by Echidna man, I., 317.

Snake tradition, I., 347.

Social organisation local groups connected with, I., 63, 99.


Spears, description of, II., 521.

miniature ones used for maig, II., 417.

Spear-thrower, I., 25,; II., 525.

Spear-throwing, I., 15.

Spindle, II., 517.

Spines of Echidna represent Alchera spears, I., 316.

Spirit Beliefs, II., 420-428.

Kakadu belief in, II., 421.

leaving body and returning to Pertalchera in form of whistling bird, II., 423.

of dead man returning to the grave as an Ulthane, II., 423.

Spittle, used for evil magic, II., 419.

Splitting of original Churinga, I;, 105, 359, 361.

Splitting of an original Kuruna to form an Arumburinga and a new Kuruna, II., 421, 422.

Splitting of the spirit in the Kakadu Tribe, II., 421.

Squares, designs derived from circles, II., 554, 785.

Stars, II., 499.

Status terms, Appendix B., II., 581.

Steppe Lands, I., 1, 4.

Sterility, amongst women, I., 39.

Stirling, Dr. E. C., description of Undiara, I., 166 f.n.

Finding store of Churinga, I., 101.

Stone, put under armpit of boy during circumcision, I., 216.

Stone implement, nature of, depends on material available, II., 536.

Stone implements of various types, Eolithic, Paleolithic and Neolithic made and used, side by side, II., 536.

Stone knives, Leilira of Ullagubbeara men, I., 312.

Stones, associated with Udurringita ancestors, I., 329.

each one representing male and female kangaroos, rubbed at Mbanbiuma ceremony, I., 173.

representing mass of honey, I., 161.

representing a Yarumpa man, I., 160.

Stones in body of Medicine men, II., 396.

Store-house of Churinga, names of, I., 10.

in charge of head man, I., 13.

Straight Lubras given to men by Inkata Achilpa, I., 369.

Strehlow. See Appendixes C. and D.

Strehlow, Churinga do not possess either soul or life, I., 140 f.n.

Altjira, name given to mother's totem, I., 117. f.n.

Engwura ceremony, I., 225 f.n.

mother's totem, I., 117 f.n.

String, making, II., 517.

Sub-incision ceremony, I., 207-210, 220.

men undergoing this a second time, I., 211.

not for purpose of preventing procreation, I., 221.

Sub-totems, I., 138 f.n., 153.

Sun, myth of, II., 496.

ceremony concerned with, II., 497.

object containing heat of, used in magic, II., 407.

relationship to members of different sections, II., 496.

Sun Totem, women belonging to, II., 496, 497.

Tables of relationship, I., 45, 48.

Talkara, stone Churinga, I., 105.

changing stone into wooden ones, I., 365.

Tanunda, platform for storing Churinga, I., 110, 227; 229.

Tchinperli, stick with small stones, used for evil magic, II., 419.

Teeth, knocking out, II., 477.

opossum, used for making designs on Churinga, I., 115.

Terms of adress, Apendix B., II., 581.

of relationship, I., 45-61.

Thara, special fire made by avenging party, II., 455.

Thippa-thippa birds, mates of Lizard men, I., 250.

Thippa alcheraa, mulga trees containing Kuruna, I., 370.

Tidjanira alknarinja, I., 365.

Tidjanira, wwoden Churinga transformed from stone, I., 365.

Tiegs, Dr. O. W., on structure of hair, I., 42.

Times, names for different, I., 21.

Tmalpunga men, origin of, I., 364.

Churinga of, in the Ambilia-ekura, I., 287.

their Rola Knanja, I., 377.

Tmara Irriakura, I., 323.

Tmara knanja, totem camp, I., 323.


Toe, dislocation of the, of a Kurdaitcha man, II., 455.

Tongue of Medicine man, hole made in, II., 572, 577.

Tooth, knocking out, I., 45,; II., 477.

no knocking out at initiation, I., 175.

opossum, used for incising designs on Churinga, I., 115.

Topography, totemic, I., 88.

Totem, often called Alchera, I., 69, 304.

Achilpa, I., 74, 354.

ceremonies at the Engwura, I., 223-303.

changing from one into another, I., 86, 334.

designs painted on Illpongworra, I., 296.

each one is especially associated with one moiety, I., 78.

eating a mother's, I., 117.

Emu ceremony, I., 156, 275.

Fire, origin of, I., 348, 349.

Frog ceremony, I., 274.

group becoming extinct, I., 247, 366.

groups, local organisation connected with, I., 65.

irregular descent of, in the Arunta, I., 69, 371.

Irriakura, Mbanbiuma ceremony, I., 173.

mother's, a man's relation to, I., 117.

man of one normally marrying a woman of the same in the Alchera, I., 311, 318, 369.

maternal descent of, in the Urabunna, I., 68.

members of group taking part in cere-monies, I., 119.

moon, tradition of, II., 498.

name for is Knanja, I., 69, 230.

name, how acquired, I., 71, 76, 77, 165.

names in five families, I., 70.

not affect descent of Churinga, I., 119.

not now confined to one moeity or Section, I., 69, 73.

regulating marriage in Urabunna tribe, I., 68.

relationship between totem and individual, I., 80-87.

resuscitation of, and totem group, I., 247.,

Totem (continued)--

tradition of origin of Irriakura, I., 323.

Udnirringita, I., 326.

Totemic local groups, I., 9.

groups, local organisation, I., 72.

members of one moiety predominating in, I., 73.

topography, I., 88-98.

traditions, I., 74.

Unjiamba, wanderings of women, I., 74.

Totems, general account, I;, 67, 69, 86.

Tracking powers, I., 20.

Tradition of bandicoot women, I., 334.

of Beings called Bumbakulla, I., 307.

of Echunpa (Lizard) men, I., 342.

of Emu group, I., 339.

of Gnoilya (wild dog) men, I., 335.

of Honey-ant totem group, I., 340.

of Inapatua crreatures, I., 308.

of Inarlinga man, I., 314, 316.

of Intwailiuka, Udnirringita Inkata, I., 326.

of Iturka-wora man, I., 350.

of Lizar men at Simpson's Gap, I., 310.

of origin of Irriakura totem group, I., 323.

of snake in water hole, I., 347.

of Udnirringita totem group, I., 326, 339.

of Ullagubbera men, I., 323.

of Ulpmerka men, I., 309.

Transformation of animals and plants into human being, I., 308.

of grubs into Udnirringita men, I., 327, 330.

Transformation of circles into squares, in designs, II., 571.

Tree representing a Nurtunja, I., 319.

Tribes, each has distinct dialect and owns country, I., 7.

names an distribution of, I., 5.

Trora, musical instrument, II., 513.

Tualcha mura, establishment of relationship of, II., 469.

Tukira, boils of a kangaroo, pulling them out, I., 168.

Tundun, male spirit of Kurnai, I., 100.

Tunpulilima ceremony of, I., 328.

Turna, a wooden pitchi made of hard-wood, II., 519.


twanyirrika at initiation, I., 182, 202, 367, 372.

Twanyirrika believed by women to be a spirit, I., 202.

Twanyirrika Churinga, made by Arunga, I., 107.

given to messengers, I., 227.

given to youth after circumcision, I., 203, 204.

two first made by Numbakulla, I., 365.

Twanyirrika men, returning to their frist camp, I., 372.

two men arising from the first two wooden Churinga, I., 365.

Twins, killing of, I., 39.

Uchaqua, Churinga, Udnirringita totem, I., 150.

Uchuilima, making lithe, II., 482.

Udnirringita group, origin and wanderings of, I., 326.

tradition of Intwailiuka, I., 88.

Udnirringita totem, includes four representatives of closely allied grubs, I., 89.

Ullagubbera, little hawk men, introducing circumcision with stone knife, I., 312-319.

Ullinka, hooked pointing stick, II., 403.

Ulpailima, softenings, use of this term, I., 143.

Ulpmerka, men not circumcised by the Numbakulla, I., 240, 257.

uncircumcised men of various totems, I., 389.

Ulpmerka atnamma, stones representing Ulpmerka men standing up, I., 390.

Ulpmerka and food restrictions, I., 492.

boy attaining this status, I., 179.

ceremony concerned with, I., 178.

tradition of, I., 309.

Ulpmerka men and Kukaitcha, I., 390.

taken away north where there are now uncircumcised men, I., 390.

Ulthana, spirits, II., 421.

spirit of dead man, II., 423.

Ultunda, stones in body of medicine man, II., 395.

Umbalinyara, ceremonial object used in an Iruntarinia ceremony, II., 426.

Umbana, a bough shelter built during the Udnirringita Intichiuma ceremonies, I., 151.

Umbilia-ekura, making the, I., 287.

Unchichera irrunpa, frog sticks, I., 292.

Unchima, Churinga, I., 150.

Unchima, Churinga, Udnirringita totem, I., 149, 327.

Uncircumcised men, I., 257.

Underga, Emily Gap and the Udnirringita totem, I., 327.

Undiara and the Kangaroo Ungutnika, I., 168.

local centre of Kangaroo totem, I., 166.

Mbanbiuma ceremony, I., 171.

origin of Rock Ledge at Indiara, I., 171.

Ungambikula, See Numbakulla.

Ungamillia, evening star, II., 499.

Ungna, natice trerm for class or section.

Ungunja, men's camp, I., 83, 153,; II., 396.

Unjailga totem, I., 189.

Unjiamba women, wanderings of, I., 74, 338.

Unjipinna, establishment of relationship of, I., 177.

Unjipinna man painting boy at inititation, I., 177.

Unpora ninga, mates, a term applied to a pair of Churinga, I., 105.

Unthippa women, dancing and carrying boys, I., 180, 215.

Urilyura, little fire totem, I., 349.

Urkna, juice of decaying flesh, signifies the essence of anything, I., 23,; II., 406.

Urliara status term of men after the Engwura, I., 298.

Urpma, cuts made on women, I., 211.

Urpmilchimilla, final mourning ceremony, II., 423, 435.

Urumpilla, name for the lesser Engwura ceremonies, I., 223, 224.

Variation in customs, I., 13.

Visiting camps, etiquette of, I., 241,; II., 505-509.

strange camp by inititate, I., 217.

strange camp, proceeding attendant upon, II., 503-509.

Vocabulary, I., 22.

Waist-band, made of human hair, I., I., 31.

Wallet, form and contents of, I., 26, 235,; II., 515.


Wanderings of the Achilpa group across Arunta country, I., 373.

Waninga ceremony, I., 184, 191-251.

description of, I., 190, 252.

the Wurtja embracing, I., 191, 194.

Water, various terms for, I., 22.

drinking during ceremony of returning Churinga, I., 141.

not drunk during Rain Mbanbiuma, I., 164.

Water-fowl, mates of water totem people, I., 353.

Water totem, Mbanbiuma ceremony, I., 16211.,2.

Weapons, characteristic ones, I., 25.; II., 520.

Wells, natives, I., 6.

Whakutnimma, running round the performers, I., 238.

Whirlwind and spirit children, I., 77.

Whiskers, promoting growth of, II., 413.

Widow, duties of, ban of silence and release from, II., 434.

Widow, painted with white, II., 433.

Wife of dead man, speared by brother, II., 435.

Wife's family, association with and food gifts to certain members of, II., 490.

Witchetty grubs, Udnirringita, Unjailga, Alkneja, Yippija, traditions of, I., 91, 97.

Witchetty grubs, transformed into men, I., 75.

Wives, interchange of, during ceremonies, I., 218.

allotments of in the Alchera, I., 321.

methods of obtaining, II., 408.

procuring by magic, II., 408.

Women, Alchera, drawing representing, at Emily Gap, I., 149.

Women, Ambilia-ekura shown to, I., 291.

Women avoiding the Pertalchera, I., 109.

allowed near Pertalchera, I., 109.

capture of, II., 464.

carrying Nurtunja, I., 285, 375.

corrobboree, II., 561.

cutting heads at grave, II., 441.

cutting themselves during sub-incision ceremony, I., 211.

dance at close of the Engwura, I., 299.

dance during initiation ceremony in Southern Arunta, I., 222.

Women (continued)--

dance on the Apulla ground, I., 180, 215.

descent of Churinga, I., 118.

doctors, II., 394.

drawing of, on ground, used to punish by magic, II., 416.

Eruncha, I., 345, 377.

excluded from Arilta ceremony, I., 207.

food restrictions, II., 695, 696.

Honey-ant, with Nurtunja, I., 341.

initiation ceremonies, I., 222.

interchange and lending of, I., 218, 299.

introducing stone knife for circumcision, I., 319.

obtained by magic, II., 408.

painted with Ilkinia designs of Witchetty grub totem, I., 139.,

performing and seeing Sacred Ceremonies in the Alchera, I., 150.

performing Lartna on boys, I., 345.

possessing Churinga, I., 341.

possessing Nurtunjas in the Alchera, I., 161, 318, 380, 381, 390.

preparing fire at the Engwura, I., 278, 295, 366.

presentation of Atua-kurka to, I., 213.

punishment of, for breaking Tabu, I.,168.

putting men on the fire during the Engwura, I., 298.

restoring a man killed by an Echidna man, I., 318.

rubbing design off back of initiate, I., 201.

seeing and owning sacred objects in the Alchera, I., 106, 167, 375.

seeing part of a sacred ceremony of the Emu totem, I., 156.

special name for Udnirringita, I., 91.

stone implements of, II., 536.

stripping leaves from Arachitta poles during the Lartna ceremonu, I., 201, 215.

sun regarding as a , II., 496.

the Ambilia-eruka shown to them, I., 290.

throwing lighted bushes over the Illpongworra men, I., 279.

tooth-knoking-out ceremony, II.? 476.


women (continued)--

two Bandicoot women, wanderings of, I., 334.

two Luritcha women and Kukaitcha, I., 340.

two Unjiamba, wanderings of, I., 338.

two Unjiamba, and Achilpa men, I., 238.

Udnirringita, watching Intichiuma ceremony in the Alchera, I., 328.

Unthippa dance, I., 180, 215, 344, 345.

using magic, II., 413.

wanderings of in the Alchera, I., 334.

Wooden bowls, II., 518.

Wultha-chelpima, performers lying on Wurtja during the Lartna ceremony. I., 193.

Wulya, official at circumcision, I., 197.

Wurtja boy obtaining this status, I., 183.

Wurtja, performers lying on him at circumcision ceremony, I., 193.

Yalmuru and Iwaiyu, name for spirit and its double in the Kakadu Tribe, II., 421.

Zig-zag designs, II., 571.

Zoomorphs, II., 555.